Fraunhofer - IGCV

Results & Reports

LBM Additive Manufacturing
Defect Catalogue

Laser beam melting (LBM) is a complex technology and the resulting component quality is dependent on various parameters. The aim of this study was, on the one hand, to give an overview of potential process deviations during the LBM process and of possible component defects that may result from these, and on the other hand, to evaluate the most critical errors of the LBM process. A closer look was taken at resulting building defects and their consequences on component quality. The results should give an indication of how much they affect part quality. 

Find the document LBM Additive Manufacturing Defect Catalogue here...


Design for Additive Manufacturing
A feasable methodology

More commonly known as 3D printing, additive manufacturing (AM) offers advantages that can never be attained with traditional production lines: limitless design freedom, customisation, lightness, material efficiency, etc. To unlock its full potential, designers need to adopt a completely new approach and mindset. A key aspect is using the right methodology, which we will explain in this e-book.

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Design in Additive Manufacturing
Basic considerations related to processes

Additive manufacturing (AM) is said to be able to produce all geometries. Designers tend to propose amazing geometries but are often disappointed with the component quality. Components can be deformed, have poor surface quality, can be less clean than expected or outside the tolerances.....
Designers can do something to address these problems. Some basic considerations would enable them to make their components much easier to produce. If production is easier, the final quality is improved and sometimes there is even a reduction in cost without sacrificing performance.
The purpose of this document is to provide an introduction to how the various AM machines work. This will help the reader understand why there are some design rules in AM and why they exist.
In this way, designers can create optimised shapes for the selected AM technology. This means better as-built quality and less expensive post-treatment.
This work was carried out by the Sirris Research Centre as part of the Cornet project AM4l – Additive Manufacturing for Industries. 

Find the document Design in Additive Manufacturing
Basic considerations related to processes here...


Quality optimisation and cost analyses to prepare implementation of additive manufacturing processes

The primary objective of the AM 4 Industry project was to develop a model that demonstrates the benefits of integrating additive manufacturing into a company’s production technologies. To this end, both the resulting costs and the benefit generated by production with additive manufacturing were identified.
The cost–benefit model is designed to provide a model that is practicable for the industry and makes it possible to compare various production methods for specific parts. This is intended to enable companies to make informed decisions as to whether they want to include additive manufacturing into their production. Today, these decisions are often based on incomplete information, partial costs, and improper judgement. 

Find the document Quality optimisation and cost analyses
to prepare implementation of additive manufacturing processes here...


Introduction to OpenFoam® and chtMultiRegion using an application-oriented example

In the course of the work on the AM 4 Industry project, research on the design and simulation of near-contour cooling channels was carried out. One objective was to provide toolmaking engineers with an instrument that could be used to further optimise cooling channel geometries. Particularly in the design of near-contour and irregular cooling channels, simulation using commercial simulation programs may not be sufficient and thus require additional simulation steps. For this additional or supplementary simulation step, the focus was deliberately placed on a non-commercial simulation program. Therefore, the program OpenFoam® (Open Source Field Operation and Manipulation) was chosen for the simulations. This is freely available and is mainly used to solve flow problems (Computational Fluid Dynamics). It is written in C++ and comes with useful solvers even in the basic version, and a wide variety of further solvers can be adapted. One of the major advantages is that the source code and thus also the algorithms are freely accessible; and another, that the codes and calculations can be extended almost arbitrarily.
Based on an application-oriented example, this manual describes the structure and the
performance of a simulation in detail. The solver chtMultiRegion was used for the simulations. This is generally used to calculate the heat exchange between a solid and a fluid.
The objective of this manual is to give users in development, simulation engineers and students an application-oriented introduction to OpenFoam®, as well as an overview of how to work with it. The individual steps were grouped into nine chapters with the following contents:

  • Chapters 1 and 2 give a general overview of the simulation example as well as of the simulation structures of OpenFoam®
  • Chapters 3 to 6 show how a simulation case is set up in OpenFoam®, and which settings are required. The creation of the calculation mesh and the allocation of the surfaces are dealt with in detail.
  • Chapters 7 and 8 address the performance of the simulation. The choice of the boundary condition and the theory of flow simulation are dealt with.
  • Chapter 9 concludes by discussing the evaluation methods offered by OpenFoam®, and how the results can be exported for further processing.

Finally, it should be mentioned that the OpenFoam® environment may seem strange at first glance, especially for users accustomed to Windows® operating systems. Patience is definitely required here. It simply takes time for the program’s processes to be perceived as logical, and to become proficient in the commands necessary for the operation and execution of the program. However, it will certainly be worthwhile to get deeply into this topic, as it offers the possibility to further refine one’s simulations and make better predictions. This may in turn provide a clear competitive advantage. Thus: Happy Foaming! Find the document here: Introduction to OpenFoam® and chtMultiRegion
using an application-oriented example